Saturday, October 2, 2010

Tafsiran Surah Quraisy (106)

سورة قريش (106)
Surah Quraysh (106)

MUKADIMAH
Nama Surah
 
Nama surah (106) ini ialah Quraisy kerana mengambil perkataan ini daripada ayat pertama dalam surah. Ada yang menamakannya dengan surah لايلاف قريش.  Al-Suyuti di dalam al-Itqan tidak memberi nama selain surah Quraisy.  Imam al-Bukhari juga menurunkan nama ini sebagai judul dalam Kitab al-Tafsir.

Zaman Nuzul

Surah ini termasuk dalam kelumpuk surah-surah Makkiyyah kerana diturunkan di Makkah. Mufassirin sepakat menyatakan turunnya di Makkah, bahkan ada pandangan menyatakan surah Quraisy dan al-Fil  merupakan satu surah sahaja. Ibn `Atiyyah berpendapat tiada khilaf pada zaman nuzulnya. Al-Qurtubi memetik daripada al-Kalbi dan al-Dhahhak menyatakan nuzul surah ini di Madinah, bagaimana pun al-Suyuti tidak memasukkannya dalam kumpulan surah-surah yang diikhtilafkan zaman nuzulnya.

Munasabat Surah

Surah Quraisy ini mempunyai munasabat yang sangat kuat dengan surah al-Fil kerana ayat-ayat surah al-Fil membicarakan nikmat keamanan rohani yang diperolehi penduduk Makkah kerana kegagalan usaha musuh untuk menyerang dan meruntuhkan Kaabah yang menjadi rumah ibadat dan lambang kebangkaan kaum Quraisy.

Ayat-ayat  dalam surah Quraisy pula mengingatkan nikmat keamanan jasmani dari segi ekonomi dan kemasyarakatan, apabila mereka dapat menjalani kegiatan perniagaan dengan baik ke negeri Yaman  pada musim sejuk dan ke Syam musin panas.

Tema dan Ikhtisar Surah

Tema surah ini ialah “Nikmat Makanan dan Keamanan”.

Sebagaimana yang diketahui umum,, semenanjung Arab terletajk di antara Eropah dan Asia. Kegiatan umatnya ialah menjalankan urusan perdagangan di antara dua benua besar ini.  Umat ini pada hakikatnya adalah  pengantara yang menghubungkan di antara Rom di Utara dan India di Selatan.
 
Allah mengurniakan kepada umat Arab yang tinggal di Makkah dan di kawasan-kawasan sekitarnya keistimewaan ini dan sewajarnyalah mereka beribadat kepada Allah yang memberi kepada mereka makanan yang menyelamatkan mereka dari kelaparan dan mengamankan mereka dari ketakutan.
 
Perkataan-perkataan dalam 4 ayat bagi surah berkenaan mengisyaratkan betapa mantapnya keamanan dan kesejahteraan di negeri Makkah apabila asas-asas ekonominya kukuh, politiknya pula bebas dari keganasan serta bebas bergerak dan bersuara.
 
           Dari segi keamanan dan keselamatan yang dinikmati kaum Quraisy lebih istimewa berbanding kaum-kaum lain, mungkin kerana faktor ini Allah menjadikan mereka lebih layak memikul tanggungjawab dakwah dan menyebarkan Islam ke seluruh dunia. 
 
            Dalam sebuah hadith menyatakan kaum Quraisy merupakan kaum yang diistimewakan dengan beberapa perkara, salah satu daripapadanya ialah surah ini dinuzulkan khusus mengenai mereka, sabda Nabi saw:
 
فَضّلَ اللهُ قُرَيْشًاً بِسَبْعِ خِلاَلٍ: أَنّي مِنْهُمْ، وَأنَّ النُّبُوَّةَ فِيْهِمْ، وَالْحِجَابَةَ وَالسِّقَايَةَ فِيْهِمْ، وَأَنَّ اللهَ نَصَرَهُمْ عَلَى الْفِيلِ، وَأَنَّهُمْ عَبَدُوا اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَشْرَ سِنِيْنَ لاَ يَعْبُدُهُ غَيْرُهُمْ، وَأنَّ اللهَ أَنْزَلَ فِيْهِمْ سُوْرَةً مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ، ثُمَّ تَلا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلى اللهُ عَليهِ وَسَلَّم: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ . لإيلافِ قُرَيْشٍ* إِيلافِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَاءِ وَالصَّيْفِ * فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ* الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُمْ مِنْ جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُمْ مِنْ خَوْفٍ[871]*

Terjemahan: Allah saw memberi tujuh keistimewaan kepada kaum Quraisy iaitu aku daripada suku mereka, kenabian ada pada mereka, hijabah (penjaga kelambu Kaabah) dan siqayah (penjaga telaga Zamzam) ada pada mereka,  Allah memberi kemenangan kepada mereka melawan terntera bergajah, mereka beribadat selama sepuluh tahun dengan mentauhidkan Allah yang tidak disembah hanya mereka.  Seterusnya baginda membaca surah Quraisy ini dari awal hingga akhirnya.

Kaun Quraisy ialah umat Arab yang tinggal di semenanjung Arab dari keturunan al-Nadr ibn Kinanah, mereka ini tinggal di Makkah pada zaman Qusayy ibn Kilab. Al-Nadr ibn Kinanah merupakan Quraisy yang paling atas, padanya berkumpul nasab keturunan seluruh Quraisy.
 
Fadilat Surah.
 
Tiada keterangan khusus menunjukkan kelebuhan surah ini, sama ada daripada bal-Qur`an atau hadith.



[871] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 4/553

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